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Skip to dziejd content. Log In Sign Up. The organisation of liturgical space and its furnishing The basic matters have been presented at the scientiic conference: It was completed in the late 15th cent. Ecclesia laicorum is in that respect much better preserved wall paintings, sculptures, baptismal font or known against written sources organ, cancel, grave plates in spite of structural alterations and transformations resulting from denominational and functional changes. The analysed artefacts — though not so numerous, as the material sources significantly complement a skimpy archival base related with functioning of one of the most significant Prussian convents in Middle Ages.
It is also one of the most monumental architectural realisations undertaken by Franciscan Friars in Northern part of Europe. That was a lucky chance, since after secularisation of the convent the church had been in Protestant hands for almost years, then was reorgan- ised by the Bernardine Fathers, and after dissolution of their order in has served as a parish kboswki since In spite of denominational and functional changes, a large portion of its Franciscan legacy survived till our times.
The present 1 Among the most signiicant studies on the architecture one should mention listed chrono- logically: PTPN,— Piotr Birecki et al. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK,— It focuses not only on the spatial organisation of the church interior till the late 14th century, but also on transformations made at the twilight of Middle Ages. Initially, the convent was to minister to the suburbs inhabited by the rabble and was located extra muros. After spa- tial reorganisation of the town in midth century it found itself within the town walls, close to the newly delineated Old Town Market3.
On the other hand one should remember, that it continued to fulfil the task of a convent church. Thus the space of sztuko edifice should be regarded as a multi-functional and multifocal one; its form polksiej influenced by a number of factors, including kbowksi intellectual condition and religious aware- ness of the interior users and of the recipients of the exercised ministry.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK, Afrom the section available to the faithful ecclesia exterior, laico- rum; fig. Dthat took up the whole main body of the church. In that way the two foundations of the mendicant conventual obligation — the communal office and the ministry — were clearly divided. Both sections of the church underwent significant changes within the 14th century7 — the two-naved body of the church has been extended on the south side8 and transformed into a three-naved one with a gallery on the north side.
In the turn of 14th centu- ry it has been extended towards the west by two spans and the vaulting has been considerably raised. Also the chancel — earlier narrow and polygonally closed has been widened, extended and raised.
It can bee assumed, that the construction works were continuously run till the beginning of the 15th century, and even later the fabrica ecclesiae could make necessary alterations and repairs.
However one can assume, that ca. Untersuchungen zur Frage der Kunstlandschaft und geographie Petersberg: Peter Imhof Verlag,— Its furnishing is preserved in remnants and some elements are uncertain. The main element of the furnishing of interioris must have been a con- ventual altar fitted with holy relics and furnished with liturgical vessels sanctuary appointments of the main altar were an exception from the rule of monastic poverty12 and lighting, and probably also with an antependium and a painting or a retable.
Monika Schmelzer, Der mittelalterliche Lettner im deutschsprachigen Raum: Michael Imhof Verlag,81—98, — Hirmer Verlag, See also artefacts belonging among the furnishing of Franciscan altars chalices, pyxides, monstrances and vestments in the same catalogue, — In the centre a scene of Coronation of the Virgin was placed with figures of saints to the sides including Franciscan saint patrons: Clare, Francis, Anthony and Louis.
What was earlier in this location remains unknown. Perhaps one should look at the main altar as a place for the oldest, Bohemian panels of the Polyptych17, of high artistic class and an elaborate program addressed to the learned, Franciscan recip- ients fig. Na marginesie prac badawczo-konserwatorskich przy tzw.
Źródła i polecane książki – My resources and recommended books [PL only] – Lamus Dworski
Studia nad malarstwem gotyckim w Dzieej, ed. Societas Vistulana,29— In terms of the contents such composition is possible, however doubtful — considering different dimensions of the panels and their different structure. The panels might have fulil a devotional function or make a part of the rood screen. Schmid in a form of two panels with representations kboswki the Childhood of Christ and Quinitas on obverses.
On the iconography see: Wydawnictwo UWr,— It is unique in European scale, three-dimensional and entirely autonomic realisation of that theme retable-top? Most probably it was designed for an exclusive sacred space an oratory, a monastery cell, sacristy, or ecclesia interior.
It is not known, to what extent the north aisle fig. Bcreated by incorporating the south part of the cloister to the church building, was available to the faithful surely its original function was related with monastic life.
Also the availability and functions of the north gallery is not clear. The duality of space of ecclesiae fratrum and ecclesiae laicorum had been accentuated by the intermedium, clearly marking the two separate liturgical zones. Unfortunately, nothing is known either about the form or about the structure of the rood-screen.
What is known is its width, that must have been limited to the width of the chancel: Its outer perimeter is probably marked by the entrance to the so- called sacristy on szztuki north side: Also a votive mural with a szfuki boat and St Nicholas visible on xzieje north wall must have belonged to the outer zone.
The passage from the nave to the choir could be located on the axis of the rood-screen, or there were two passages on the both side of the chan- cel. What draws attention in this context is the separateness of painted decoration of the first span from the east in the southern nave fig. This seems to be ideologically associated with the intermedium and with the liturgical centre of the church daieje which it is separated by north portal belonging to the outer cloisters perhaps there was a procession pathway.
Two massive figures of Archangels — Michael and Gabriel — intertwined with the cycle of monumental decorations of the south aisle seem to be stylistic somewhat later ca. They follow the general composition but are more softly painted and the architecture is more elaborate and lighter. There is also no connection between them either in terms of theme or of function. There is however a dis- tinct relationship between them and the scene of Coronation of the Virgin- -Ecclessia of a unique in Prussia, Italian iconography So the space of east recess might have been related with the cult of angels and the essence of its unique program is dziene with the celestial liturgy, the repetition of which is the eucharistic liturgy celebrated on the kbowzki.
First of all this is where the basic element of mendicant ministry was per- formed — the ad status preaching. This had its own, particular ethos and an overriding aim: The church yard was located on the south-east side, available from the St Mary Street and could have been used for occasional outdoor preaching. Transversal axis of the church was associated with the alleged location of the pulpit21 and the organ placed on a longitudinal gallery. It is worth mentioning, that in the space of ecclesiae exterioris not only activities resulting from the pastoral mission were concentrated, but also those result- sztuko from dizeje social position of the convent in the town.
They had to compete for the faithful and donators with the Old Town parish church and with the Dominican Friars, whose convent was founded two decades later in the New Town. The space of the nave quickly reflected that situation.
It was a venue of liturgy with alluring musical setting and crammed with altars that served their private founders. The Medieval baptismal font of quite rough octagonal form, preserved inside the polskkiej nave, can serve as an argument that they dzieej performed also baptismal service Iconosphere of that interior, addressed chiefly to the representatives of town rabble, polskiei abundant and expressive, sometimes even verging polskuej a popular devotion.
The mendicants yoked music to their spiritual kbowsku pastoral program. It is known, that it was still used dzieeje the Protestants till the early 17th cent.: Most probably it was a wooden structure placed against lbowski of the pillars. Perhaps also later the parochial obligation in this respect had not been fulilled.
Even the 16th-century chronicler David reported, that the organ attracted crowds of people wanting to watch it and to listen to the music The instrument, until extending the northern gallery, must have functioned in the church space from the late 13th century, most probably on some elevated, overhung wooden structure.
Such location would have also been the most appropriate in terms of acoustics and would have allowed to display the artistic form of the instrument to its best. The analysis of elements of iconosphere of the church indicates, that the wztuki were aware of and made use of the potential of image — both for teaching and for inspiring their listeners to deeper religious experience lead- ing to conversion and expiation.
Among the works of the easiest perception and the strongest impact one should count mural paintings. Undoubtedly, the largest realisation among the mendicant mural polychromes and even in Central European mural painting in general is the cycle on the south side of the church. This is a series of full-length images of saints under canopies as well as representa- tions of Our Lady of Sorrows and Christ at the Column, generally interpreted as a triumphal rendering of Communio Sanctorum fig. Lambeck,vol.
What draws attention in this composition is the pose of characters — all of them, thanks to slight turns of bodies or tilts of heads, are directed towards the nave, they gaze at symbols or attributes or seek a direct eye contact with the viewers.
They act within the space of church as a distinct accord, regardless of the point of view in the nave but they are almost invisible from the chancel and only partly perceivable from the gallery.
This, in a way, dictates their inter- pretation: Christ at the Column and Our Lady of Sorrows act as an incentive to contemplate the Passion and to expiate for sins sztkui. St John the Baptist fig. St Elisabeth here without symbols of nobility but rather as a tertiary with polsikej of charity dsieje, might have been a model for practicing alms.
Sztuka Polski – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia
However it seems, that considered together those images make a monumentalised appeal to the faithful. They make a set of visualised rhetorical figures, instruction on forms of vocation and devotion, that might have been utilised by Franciscan Friars in preaching the sermons which would have a parallel in mendicant preaching tradition of German circle, e.
Leaving out its probable dzije function, Franciscan Collegium Sanctorum expressed the gener- al ecclesiological idea: Even today, the murals are a dominant accent of liturgical space, they make a complete, multithreaded assembly of an undeniable artistic dzeije. It seems that their Medieval users were aware of those values: